Archive for the ‘e-english’ Category

Suffixes in English language-Part 1

There are sev­eral kinds of suf­fixes in Eng­lish gram­mar. These suf­fixes help us very much in the for­ma­tion of verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjec­tives from just the root words. If we are able to recap the root words then it’s very to form sev­eral words using suf­fixes and pre­fixes. Let us learn dif­fer­ent kinds of suf­fixes and how to use them prop­erly to form new words. Actu­ally there are four kinds of suf­fixes. They are:
1. Nom­i­nal suf­fixes
2. Ver­bal suf­fixes
3. Adjec­ti­val suf­fixes
4. Adver­bial suffixes

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Nom­i­nal suf­fixes:
These are often used to derive the abstract nouns from verbs, adjec­tives and nouns. These denote actions or related con­cepts or prop­er­ties or qual­i­ties etc. Let’s see the dif­fer­ent kinds of nom­i­nal suf­fixes.
–age: This is used to express an activ­ity as in cov­er­age, leak­age, orphan­age etc.
–al : This suf­fix is added to verbs to form abstract nouns and denotes an action like in arrival, renewal etc.
–ance: This also vary as –ence, –ancy, –ency. This is used along with verbs to cre­ate the words such as retar­dance, absorbance etc.
–ant: This is used to form count nouns like attrac­tant, dis­per­sant etc.
–cy/-ce: This suf­fix attaches with nouns and forms adjec­tives like agency, pres­i­dency etc. The suf­fix –cy is used to denote the qual­ity, states, prop­er­ties or facts. The exam­ples in which this –cy suf­fix is used are con­ver­gence, diver­gence etc.
–ee: This is attached with the nouns and denotes or qual­i­fies the job of a per­son from the noun form of the job. The words with this suf­fix are employee, biographee, amputee etc.
–ion: This is one of the suf­fixes that we use often. This can be com­bined with –ify and forms the com­bined suf­fix of –ifi­ca­tion and used with the works like per­son­i­fi­ca­tion. When this –ion is com­bined with –ate forms another suf­fix –ation which is used in the words like star­va­tion.
–ism: This forms the abstract nouns from the nouns, adjec­tives and deriv­a­tives and expresses the atti­tude, state, con­di­tion, the­ory or beliefs. Some of these words are Marx­ism, Bud­dhism, Jain­ism etc.
There are sev­eral other nom­i­nal suf­fixes like –ship used in the words like friend­ship, –ness used in the words like good­ness, bad­ness etc., –ment used in the words like rudi­ment, base­ment etc., –ity in infer­til­ity, –ist in the words like men­tal­ist, fem­i­nist etc.

How to form words?

It is very easy to learn and build the words if we know some basics in for­ma­tion of the words and how the chem­istry occurs between the words to form more other related words. There are many words in Eng­lish and they are in bil­lions so we can’t remem­ber all so we have to take some domains in which we are involved more and learn­ing the words in that domain will help us very much in our daily life and we are not try­ing for the word com­pe­ti­tions and we just want to learn words for our daily work. We may not need most of those words because if we are work­ing in the field of com­puter sci­ence then what is the need of learn­ing all the words related to biol­ogy? So let’s learn only the words that are related to our domain. But one impor­tant thing is that we should have some basic vocab­u­lary and their usage in our life as when we try to under­stand some basic con­cepts like virus, bac­te­ria because if we don’t know what is a virus or bac­te­ria is then we can’t under­stand any­thing about the dis­eases that are caused because of them. So we should try to build some basic knowl­edge about other fields also.

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Most of the time if we know the root words from which we got the words we can derive all the words based on that root word and also we can eas­ily get the mean­ing of that word. One more ben­e­fit that we get if we try to remem­ber the root words is that it reduces the prob­lem of remem­ber­ing the words.
For exam­ple if you just remem­ber the word “cide” or “caedo” is to kill. Basic on this we can con­struct so many words like
Pat­ri­cide – killing of own father (pater or patris means father),
Mat­ri­cide– killing of own mother (mater or matris means mother),
Uxoricide-killing of own wife (uxor means wife),
Soro­r­i­cide– killing of own sis­ter (soror means sis­ter),
Regi­cide– killing of king (reg means king),
Geno­cide– killing of whole race (geno means race).
Some of the words can sim­ply formed by just adding some pre­fixes and suf­fixes to the already exist­ing and the words that we know very much. By adding these suf­fices and pre­fixes we can form the adjec­tives and adverbs of the words also if they are nouns and verbs respec­tively.
For exam­ple by adding the suf­fix ‘ly’ we can get the adjec­tive form of the noun. ‘ity’ is a noun suf­fix, ‘ist’ is a per­son who does some­thing, ‘in’ for neg­a­tive pre­fix, ‘ate’ acts as verb suf­fix, ‘ion’ acts as a verb suf­fix, ‘ary’ adjec­tive suf­fix, ‘ent’ adjec­tive suf­fix etc. There are sev­eral suf­fixes and pre­fixes that we have to know and then we can form very eas­ily all the adjec­tives, nouns, verbs, adverbs from the basic root words.

Common mistakes that we do when writing spellings

It’s very com­mon that we make the mis­takes when we are writ­ing spellings as we try to write a spelling from the way we speak out. But Eng­lish is a lan­guage in which we can’t write spellings based on the way we speak. There will sev­eral silent let­ters which brings the eas­i­ness and great ele­gant along with beauty while speak­ing. When we are try­ing to write spellings based on the way we speak we may miss the silent let­ters. There are other sev­eral dif­fer­ent mis­takes that we do when we write the spellings. Let’s see some gen­eral spelling mis­takes that we do when we try to con­vert from the way we pro­nounce.
• Drop­ping a let­ter or syl­la­ble when we speak out a word.
• Adding an unnec­es­sary let­ter when we are speak­ing a word.
• Mis­pro­nounc­ing a word and writ­ing the spelling in that wrong way.

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Miss­ing let­ters:
Here are some exam­ples that we fre­quently mis­spell because we drop a let­ter while we speak.
Acci­den­tally: Gen­er­ally we pro­nounce this as acci­dently and we drop one let­ter.
Anec­dote: We pro­nounce this as anec­dote. So most often there is a chance to mis­spell this word because we will not pro­nounce that let­ter.
Asked: we will pro­nounce this by elim­i­nat­ing the let­ter ‘e’.
Cat­e­gory: We pro­nounce this as cat­e­gory which mis­leads us and pos­si­ble to mis­spell the word.
There are so many words like this and these are only very few words among them.
Extra let­ters: because of the pro­nun­ci­a­tion be add extra let­ters while we speak. Here are some of the most com­mon words in which we add extra let­ters.
Ath­lete: we pro­nounce this as athalete in which we add extra let­ter ‘a’ and when we try to write we usu­ally mis­spell this word.
Per­se­ver­ance: when we write down this word we often think there might be some silent let­ter and we mis­spell it as perserver­ance.
Hin­drance: we often mis­spell this word as hin­der­ance.
The are some of the exam­ples which we often do when we try to con­vert a word in writ­ten form because we pro­nounce a word dif­fer­ently in the way we feel very easy to us. So dif­fer­ent peo­ple may pro­nounce a word dif­fer­ently and pos­si­ble chances of mak­ing mis­takes when writ­ing spelling of that word.
Trans­posed let­ters: Mis­pro­nun­ci­a­tion also cre­ates mis­spell of the words by scram­bling the let­ters. If we observer some exam­ples we can see mis­spell of the words:
E.g.: Aes­thetic, analy­sis, lin­gerie, psy­chol­ogy, gor­geous, mileage, rhyme.
Incor­rect plu­rals: We often make mis­takes while try­ing to con­vert the words into their plural forms as they are not always formed by just putting the let­ter ‘s’ at the end. There are some plural forms which are derived dif­fer­ently from all oth­ers. The only solu­tion is that we have to remem­ber the plural forms which derive dif­fer­ently from their sin­gu­lar forms. Let’s observe some exam­ples so that we can under­stand more.
We can also elim­i­nate this prob­lem by just iden­ti­fy­ing the plu­rals as reg­u­lar and irreg­u­lar. We will have trou­ble only with the irreg­u­lar plural forms which derives dif­fer­ently from their cor­re­spond­ing sin­gu­lar forms. For reg­u­lar plural forms we just have to add the let­ter ‘s’ or ‘es’ at the end of the sin­gu­lar form.
E.g. bird: birds, hat: hats, pen­cil: pen­cils etc.
In some cases we need to add ‘es’ when the words end with ‘f’ or ‘fe’ or ‘v’.
E.g. half: halves, knife: knives, leaf: leaves etc.
For some com­pound state­ments we need to add dif­fer­ently the let­ter ‘s’.
E.g. mother-in-law: mothers-in-law etc.
There are other words which have very dif­fer­ent form in plural. We can’t say how they are derived but we have to just catch those words.
E.g. child: chil­dren, foot: feet, mouse: mice etc.

One more sit­u­a­tion in which we often con­fuse and mis­spell the words is the words which we pro­nounce the same.
E.g. born-Bourne, board– bored, brake-break, bear– bare etc.

Common mistakes when forming sentences

It is com­mon that when we start learn­ing Eng­lish and started form­ing Eng­lish sen­tences we are very likely to make some com­mon mis­takes which some­times even an expert in Eng­lish may also do. In this arti­cle I am going to tell about the com­mon mis­takes that we do when we are fram­ing sentences.

When we for­got­ten the struc­ture of a sen­tence then the sen­tences that we framed may end up incompletely.

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We should check for the com­plete mean­ing of the sen­tence after form­ing the sen­tence. When we think that it’s incom­plete then we have to add some sen­tence so that the sen­tence becomes meaningful.

Let us see how miss­ing one part could change the mean­ing of a sen­tence with one example:

Frag­ment: If you want to get good job.

Cor­rect: You should work hard if you want to get a good job.

Check the above sen­tence which has all the required parts of a sen­tence that are:

• Sub­ject of the action or doer of the action: This will be a noun or pronoun.

• Verb which indi­cates what the sub­ject does.

• Com­plete mean­ing as a whole sentence.

So when we are form­ing the sen­tences then check for the sub­ject part, verb part and the total mean­ing of the sentence.

The sec­ond most com­mon mis­take that we all do when form­ing sen­tences is when we are using the con­junc­tives. Gen­er­ally we will for­get using these con­junc­tives and try to com­bine the sen­tences with­out these impor­tant gap fill­ing parts of English.

Con­junc­tives are used for con­nect­ing the sen­tences and give the mean­ing to the sit­u­a­tion by con­nect­ing cor­rectly the two or more sen­tences. The mis­takes that occur due to the mis­takes in con­junc­tives are called run-on sen­tences. These run-on sen­tences occur when two or more sen­tences are con­nected incor­rectly. The other com­mon con­junc­tives that we use are and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet etc.

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