Archive for the ‘easy english’ Category

How to read comprehensive passages effectively? ….. Continuation

This is con­tin­u­a­tion to my pre­vi­ous post which is about the adjec­tives that are used by the author to describe his tone.

1. Adjec­tives that are used to describe mod­er­ately neg­a­tive tones:

    1. Angry or indig­nant – is annoyed about some­thing that he con­sid­ers unjust or unfair.
    2. Apa­thetic or indif­fer­ent – has adopted an uncar­ing atti­tude towards the issues mentioned.
    3. Biased, col­ored, par­ti­san, prej­u­diced, big­oted, chau­vin­is­tic – is par­tial to a cer­tain view­point with inad­e­quate justification.
    4. Con­de­scend­ing, patron­iz­ing, super­cil­ious or dis­dain­ful – thinks him­self supe­rior to oth­ers and tends to talk down to them.
    5. Cyn­i­cal – believes that peo­ple are moti­vated by the self­ish­ness. Deny­ing the sin­cer­ity of people’s motives and actions or the value of living.
    6. Skep­ti­cal – has his doubts about some­thing behind somebody’s actions, the ful­fill­ment of a promise made, the out­come of a course of action.
    7. Dog­matic, opin­ion­ated or peremp­tory – is arro­gantly and pos­i­tively stat­ing some­thing as the truth with­out car­ing to sup­port his claim with evidence.
    8. Obse­quious – is overly sub­mis­sive to a per­son or an organization.
    9. Crit­i­cal – is find­ing fault with some­body or something.
    10. Hyp­o­crit­i­cal – is pre­tend­ing to be what he is not or being self-righteous when dis­cussing the issue on hand.
    11. Sar­cas­tic or sar­donic – is jerk­ing at or taunt­ing some­one using ironic and bit­ing remarks.
    12. Satir­i­cal – is using ridicule, sar­casm, irony to expose attack or deride vices, fol­lies, stu­pidi­ties and abuses.

read­ing comprehension

2. Adjec­tives that are used to describe pos­i­tive tone:

    1. Opti­mistic, pos­i­tive, san­guine, cheer­ful or buoy­ant – is very hope­ful of the prospects of some­thing or some­body and feels that good things are in store.
    2. Humor­ous – has tried to present the topic in a funny and amus­ing man­ner with an express view to enter­tain the reader.
    3. Intro­spec­tive or con­tem­pla­tive – has attempted to analy­sis his own mind, feel­ings, actions, motives tec.
    4. Lauda­tory, acclam­a­tory, com­pli­men­tary or adul­tery – is prais­ing some­body of some­thing he con­sid­ers praiseworthy.
    5. Com­mis­er­at­ing or sym­pa­thetic – has pity or com­pas­sion for somebody’s suffering.

3. Adjec­tives that are used describe the tones that are nei­ther pos­i­tive nor negative:

    1. Neu­tral – does not favor one point of the view over the other.
    2. Apolo­getic – is express­ing regret for some­thing he has said or done.
    3. Emo­tional – was moved at the time of writing.

4. Adjec­tives that can be used to describe the nature or type of a passage:

    1. Spec­u­la­tive – it sur­mises or pon­ders over var­i­ous aspects of a given sub­ject or var­i­ous out­comes of a course of action.
    2. Roman­tic – the views expresses are fan­ci­ful and impractical.
    3. Human­is­tic – the author evinces keen inter­est in human affairs, nature, wel­fare, val­ues etc.
    4. Tech­ni­cal – it exten­sively uses the ter­mi­nol­ogy that is spe­cific to a cer­tain field.
    5. Didac­tic – its author has attempted to instruct his read­ers through the passage.
    6. Nar­ra­tive – it’s essen­tially details of a story or incident.
    7. Descrip­tive – it attempts to describe a per­son, place, thing or con­cept in detail.
    8. Evo­cate – it encour­ages the reader to con­struct men­tal pic­ture of a place or an event.

Confusing words part-3

Here are some more words those con­fuses us in gen­eral usage:

  • Endemic and epi­demic: Both refer to dis­eases. If a dis­ease is endemic it is com­mon in an area of pop­u­la­tion and peo­ple are likely to be exposed to it. An endemic refers to a wide­spread dis­ease in a region.
  • Flaunt and flout: Flaunt is some­thing that is to show off and flout is to dis­re­gard some­thing out of disrespect.
  • Gourmet and gour­mand: A gourmet is an expert in the appre­ci­a­tion of the fine food, whereas gour­mand is more inter­ested in quan­tity rather than qual­ity. Gour­man­dize is to stuff food like a glutton.

Correct usage of prepositions

In the pre­vi­ous posts we came to know about some of the basics of prepo­si­tions. We also came to know dif­fer­ent kinds of prepo­si­tions. Now in this topic let us know how to use, where to use prepo­si­tions for proper mean­ing of the sen­tences. There are 4 golden rules per­tain­ing to the proper usage of prepositions.

Rule1: In sit­u­a­tions, the prepo­si­tions might be required to be placed at the end of the sen­tence. In such sce­nar­ios, they can be used fol­low­ing ways

a) When the rel­a­tive pro­noun is ‘that’

Exam­ple: Here is the book that you have been search­ing for.

What are Coordinating sentences?

We all know the mean­ing of “coor­di­na­tion” which means some­thing that sup­port our ideas and “sub­or­di­nate” means some­thing of lesser impor­tance. As the name sug­gests, coor­di­nat­ing sen­tences and sub­or­di­nat­ing sen­tences are very much use­ful in form­ing the rela­tion­ships between the ideas and tells us about the ideas that are sup­port­ing our idea or our sen­tence and the sen­tences that are mak­ing our sen­tences lower in posi­tion. These kinds of sen­tences are very much impor­tant in Eng­lish as we may have to empha­size or reduce the impor­tance of sev­eral issues in the sen­tences that we use. Let us know when to use coor­di­nat­ing sen­tence parts and how to use these coor­di­nat­ing sentences.

grammar and punctuation

We gen­er­ally use the coor­di­nate sen­tences when we want to com­pare any equally impor­tant ideas in a sen­tence and com­bine two inde­pen­dent clauses. Usu­ally we use the fol­low­ing meth­ods to coor­di­nate sen­tence parts:

  • Coor­di­na­tion using a conjunction

The con­junc­tions that we use for coor­di­nat­ing the sen­tences are and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet etc. Each of these con­junc­tions rep­re­sent a dif­fer­ent mean­ing and used in dif­fer­ent situations.

“And” is used to link between or com­bine two ideas.

“But” is used to com­bine two con­trast ideas.

“For” is used to show a cause.

“Nor” is used to give a neg­a­tive meaning.

  • Using a pair of cor­rel­a­tive conjunctions

Some of the exam­ples for the pair of coor­di­na­tive con­junc­tions include either-or, neither-nor, not only-but also etc.

E.g. He is nei­ther best nor worst.

These are used to com­bine dif­fer­ent sen­tences which coor­di­nate each other. These show a bal­ance between two inde­pen­dent clauses.

  • Coor­di­na­tion using a semicolon

Semi­colon is used to link two inde­pen­dent clauses that are of equal impor­tance. Gen­er­ally we rep­re­sent the cause and result kind of sen­tences sep­a­rated using a semicolon.

E.g. Sheela went to the mar­ket; she brought fresh vegetables.

  • Coor­di­na­tion using a con­junc­tive verb.

Con­junc­tive verbs include there­fore, as a result, for exam­ple, in addi­tion, how­ever etc.

These are also com­monly used con­junc­tives which are use to indi­cate dif­fer­ent rela­tion­ships between the sen­tences. When we are using these kinds of con­junc­tives we need to decide which ideas can be com­bined to give the exact mean­ing. The incor­rect usage of these con­junc­tions to rep­re­sent the rela­tion­ships between the ideas leads to the change in the meaning.

E.g. The cre­ation of com­put­ers has greatly helped the soci­ety; in addi­tion to pro­vid­ing the job oppor­tu­ni­ties, it also improved our life styles.

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