Archive for the ‘universal english’ Category

A quick start for where to use the capital letters?

Most of the peo­ple are con­fused with the usage of cap­i­tal let­ters. We will use the cap­i­tal let­ters where we should not use and don’t use when it is nec­es­sary. Incor­rect usage of cap­i­tal let­ters leads to the mis­un­der­stand­ing some­times. These cap­i­tal let­ters with in a sen­tence helps the reader as an indi­ca­tion to the start­ing of the new sen­tence. The rules are very dif­fer­ent for using these cap­i­tal let­ters bur very easy to learn. Let’s learn where to use the cap­i­tal let­ters and where not to use them.

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The first and fore­most rule is that all the proper nouns which includes names, geo­graph­i­cal places, spe­cific his­tor­i­cal events and doc­u­ments, lan­guages, nation­al­i­ties, coun­tries etc.
Cap­i­tal­ize the first word at the begin­ning of a sen­tence.
Cap­i­tal­ize Names and Titles:
• Cap­i­tal­ize each person’s name. E.g. S.Mahidhar
• If a name begins with d’, de, du, or von, cap­i­tal­ize the pre­fix unless it is pre­ceded by the first name or a title.
• If a name starts with Mc, o, or St., then cap­i­tal­ize the next let­ter. E.g. Mc Don­ald, Mc Mohan, St. Marie.
• If the name begins with la or le then also cap­i­tal­ize the word that fol­lows. E.g. Le Blanck.
• Cap­i­tal­ize some of the names of the ani­mals like Lassie, Mor­ris the cat.
• Cap­i­tal­ize all the reli­gious names, mil­i­tary posts, gov­ern­ment heads.
• Cap­i­tal­ize all the parts of a gov­ern­ment offi­cials post. E.g. Vice Pres­i­dent.
• Cap­i­tal­ize all the book titles, play titles, movie titles, news­pa­per titles, mag­a­zines names, when writ­ing the full forms of abbre­vi­a­tions.
Cap­i­tal­ize Names and Lan­guages and Reli­gions:
• Cap­i­tal­ize all the names of the reli­gions, lan­guages, coun­tries and races.
• When refer­ring to the gods, cap­i­tal­ize the pro­nouns also.
• Don’t cap­i­tal­ize the words god and god­dess when refer­ring to the ancient mythol­ogy. But in gen­eral use cap­i­tal let­ters for God and God­dess.
Cap­i­tal­ize the proper adjec­tives and prod­uct nouns:
• Cap­i­tal­ize the adjec­tives that are formed from the nouns. E.g. Italy– Ital­ian.
• Don’t cap­i­tal­ize the pre­fix that was attached to a proper adjec­tive unless the pre­fix refers to a nation­al­ity. E.g. all Indi­ans, Old Eng­lish.
• Use cap­i­tal let­ters for all the brand names.
Use cap­i­tal let­ters for days, months and all hol­i­days:

Use cap­i­tal let­ters for the names of days like Sun­day, Mon­day etc.
• Use cap­i­tal let­ters for the names of the months like Decem­ber, July etc.
• Cap­i­tal­ize the names of the hol­i­days like Repub­lic day, New Year.
Cap­i­tal­ize the first let­ters of abbre­vi­a­tions, start­ing of a sen­tence, sen­tences after the colon, greet­ing words, names of the degrees, time (A.M, P.M), some short­cuts like Mount – Mt etc.

Suffixes in English language-Part 2

In the pre­vi­ous sec­tion we learned about the nom­i­nal suf­fixes and in this sec­tion let’s learn about ver­bal suf­fixes which are attached before the verbs and forms new words. In this arti­cle I want to explain about some of the impor­tant verb suf­fixes and how the new words from those suf­fixes are derived. Of all the ver­bal suf­fixes some of the impor­tant ver­bal suf­fixes are –ate, –en, –ify and –ize.

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–ate: forms end­ing with this suf­fix rep­re­sent a rather het­ero­ge­neous group. These rep­re­sents so called orna­tive and resul­ta­tive mean­ings like flu­o­ri­nate, for­mate, reg­u­late.
–en: The Ger­manic suf­fix –en attaches to mono­syl­la­bles that end in a pos­i­tive, frica­tive. Most of the mords are formed sim­i­lar to ripen, blacken, broaden etc.
–ify: This suf­fix attaches with the base words that are mono­syl­labic. The gen­eral words that are formed with this suf­fix are solid­ify, humid­ify etc. This suf­fix rep­re­sents the for­ma­tion of some­thing. The words that are formed with the suf­fix –ize also have the same mean­ing with the words formed by –ify suf­fix.
–ize: This suf­fix rep­re­sents the words that are hav­ing the related con­cepts like orna­tive, loca­tive, resul­ta­tive, sim­u­la­tive, per­for­ma­tive. The deriv­a­tives of the –ize suf­fix rep­re­sents the com­plex pat­terns and dif­fi­cult to derive sometimes.

Suffixes in English language-Part 1

There are sev­eral kinds of suf­fixes in Eng­lish gram­mar. These suf­fixes help us very much in the for­ma­tion of verbs, adverbs, nouns, adjec­tives from just the root words. If we are able to recap the root words then it’s very to form sev­eral words using suf­fixes and pre­fixes. Let us learn dif­fer­ent kinds of suf­fixes and how to use them prop­erly to form new words. Actu­ally there are four kinds of suf­fixes. They are:
1. Nom­i­nal suf­fixes
2. Ver­bal suf­fixes
3. Adjec­ti­val suf­fixes
4. Adver­bial suffixes

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Nom­i­nal suf­fixes:
These are often used to derive the abstract nouns from verbs, adjec­tives and nouns. These denote actions or related con­cepts or prop­er­ties or qual­i­ties etc. Let’s see the dif­fer­ent kinds of nom­i­nal suf­fixes.
–age: This is used to express an activ­ity as in cov­er­age, leak­age, orphan­age etc.
–al : This suf­fix is added to verbs to form abstract nouns and denotes an action like in arrival, renewal etc.
–ance: This also vary as –ence, –ancy, –ency. This is used along with verbs to cre­ate the words such as retar­dance, absorbance etc.
–ant: This is used to form count nouns like attrac­tant, dis­per­sant etc.
–cy/-ce: This suf­fix attaches with nouns and forms adjec­tives like agency, pres­i­dency etc. The suf­fix –cy is used to denote the qual­ity, states, prop­er­ties or facts. The exam­ples in which this –cy suf­fix is used are con­ver­gence, diver­gence etc.
–ee: This is attached with the nouns and denotes or qual­i­fies the job of a per­son from the noun form of the job. The words with this suf­fix are employee, biographee, amputee etc.
–ion: This is one of the suf­fixes that we use often. This can be com­bined with –ify and forms the com­bined suf­fix of –ifi­ca­tion and used with the works like per­son­i­fi­ca­tion. When this –ion is com­bined with –ate forms another suf­fix –ation which is used in the words like star­va­tion.
–ism: This forms the abstract nouns from the nouns, adjec­tives and deriv­a­tives and expresses the atti­tude, state, con­di­tion, the­ory or beliefs. Some of these words are Marx­ism, Bud­dhism, Jain­ism etc.
There are sev­eral other nom­i­nal suf­fixes like –ship used in the words like friend­ship, –ness used in the words like good­ness, bad­ness etc., –ment used in the words like rudi­ment, base­ment etc., –ity in infer­til­ity, –ist in the words like men­tal­ist, fem­i­nist etc.

How to form words?

It is very easy to learn and build the words if we know some basics in for­ma­tion of the words and how the chem­istry occurs between the words to form more other related words. There are many words in Eng­lish and they are in bil­lions so we can’t remem­ber all so we have to take some domains in which we are involved more and learn­ing the words in that domain will help us very much in our daily life and we are not try­ing for the word com­pe­ti­tions and we just want to learn words for our daily work. We may not need most of those words because if we are work­ing in the field of com­puter sci­ence then what is the need of learn­ing all the words related to biol­ogy? So let’s learn only the words that are related to our domain. But one impor­tant thing is that we should have some basic vocab­u­lary and their usage in our life as when we try to under­stand some basic con­cepts like virus, bac­te­ria because if we don’t know what is a virus or bac­te­ria is then we can’t under­stand any­thing about the dis­eases that are caused because of them. So we should try to build some basic knowl­edge about other fields also.

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Most of the time if we know the root words from which we got the words we can derive all the words based on that root word and also we can eas­ily get the mean­ing of that word. One more ben­e­fit that we get if we try to remem­ber the root words is that it reduces the prob­lem of remem­ber­ing the words.
For exam­ple if you just remem­ber the word “cide” or “caedo” is to kill. Basic on this we can con­struct so many words like
Pat­ri­cide – killing of own father (pater or patris means father),
Mat­ri­cide– killing of own mother (mater or matris means mother),
Uxoricide-killing of own wife (uxor means wife),
Soro­r­i­cide– killing of own sis­ter (soror means sis­ter),
Regi­cide– killing of king (reg means king),
Geno­cide– killing of whole race (geno means race).
Some of the words can sim­ply formed by just adding some pre­fixes and suf­fixes to the already exist­ing and the words that we know very much. By adding these suf­fices and pre­fixes we can form the adjec­tives and adverbs of the words also if they are nouns and verbs respec­tively.
For exam­ple by adding the suf­fix ‘ly’ we can get the adjec­tive form of the noun. ‘ity’ is a noun suf­fix, ‘ist’ is a per­son who does some­thing, ‘in’ for neg­a­tive pre­fix, ‘ate’ acts as verb suf­fix, ‘ion’ acts as a verb suf­fix, ‘ary’ adjec­tive suf­fix, ‘ent’ adjec­tive suf­fix etc. There are sev­eral suf­fixes and pre­fixes that we have to know and then we can form very eas­ily all the adjec­tives, nouns, verbs, adverbs from the basic root words.

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