Posts Tagged ‘Parts of speech’

Prepositions

Why prepo­si­tions are important?

Unfor­tu­nately, most of our early encoun­ters with writ­ten form of com­mu­ni­ca­tion is via Instant Mes­sag­ing or SMS ser­vices. These modes of com­mu­ni­ca­tion are essen­tially one to one form of online com­mu­ni­ca­tion. These forms of online com­mu­ni­ca­tions are pri­mar­ily per­sonal in nature. Offi­cial com­mu­ni­ca­tion calls for proper chan­nels of com­mu­ni­ca­tion fol­low­ing the rules of gram­mar. To achieve proper gram­mar, one has to iden­tify the basic parts of speech. Prepo­si­tions are one of the eight parts of speech.

What is a preposition?

Prepo­si­tions are link­ers. They link a groups of words. Nouns, pro­nouns and phrases to other parts in a sen­tence. Prepo­si­tions indi­cate the rela­tion between things in a sen­tence. A prepo­si­tion locates a noun and links it to the other part of the sen­tence. Sim­ply put, prepo­si­tion is a part of speech which intro­duces a prepo­si­tional phrase.
Let’s exam­ine some exam­ples:-
1) The cat sleeps on the sofa.
Here on is the prepo­si­tion and it intro­duces the prepo­si­tional phrase “the sofa”.
2) We drove to the store.
Here to is the prepo­si­tion and it intro­duces the prepo­si­tional phrase “the store”
Golden Rule:
Prepo­si­tion can only be fol­lowed by a noun or a sen­tence depend­ing upon the preposition.

Par­ti­cle and Prepositions

Prepo­si­tions do not alter the mean­ing of the verbs pre­ced­ing them. Par­ti­cles are phrasal verbs i.e. they are a part of the phrase.
Jack ran up the bill.
In this exam­ple, ran up is a phrase. Hence here up is a par­ti­cle.
Jack ran up the hill.
Here, up is used as a preposition.

Prepo­si­tion


Con­fus­ing Prepositions

Let’s exam­ine some of the con­fus­ing prepo­si­tions.
1) At/On/In
At prepo­si­tion is used to men­tion a par­tic­u­lar time. E.g. At mid­night.
On prepo­si­tion is used for cer­tain dates and days .E.g. On his anniver­sary.
In prepo­si­tion is used for period of time. E.g. In an year.

2) For/While/During/Since
For prepo­si­tion is used to express a period of time. E.g. I have been on this case for two years now.
While prepo­si­tion is used when more than one action is involved. E.g. The thief sneaked into their houses while they were holidaying.

Dur­ing prepo­si­tion is used to indi­cate the dura­tion of the action. E.g. He learnt gui­tar dur­ing his sum­mer vacation.

Since prepo­si­tion is used with a spe­cific date or time. E.g. They have been liv­ing here since 1990.

Some Com­mon Prepo­si­tions
• aboard
• about
• above
• across
• after
• against
• along
• amid
• among
• anti
• around
• as
• at
• before
• behind
• below
• beneath
• beside
• besides
• between
• beyond
• but
• by
• con­cern­ing
• con­sid­er­ing
• despite
• down
• dur­ing
• except
• except­ing
• exclud­ing
• fol­low­ing
• for
• from
• in
• inside
• into
• like
• minus
• near
• of
• off
• on
• onto
• oppo­site
• out­side
• over
• past
• per
• plus
• regard­ing
• round
• save
• since
• than
• through
• to
• toward
• towards
• under
• under­neath
• unlike
• until
• up
• upon
• ver­sus
• via
• with
• within
• without

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

In this arti­cle I shall give details about verbs and its kinds in terms of action. A verb is either an action or a word which tells the state of the sub­ject. You might have learnt that nam­ing words are Nouns and action words are Verbs in your high school. It is true par­tially as verbs also tell the state of the “subject”.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Tran­si­tive and Intran­si­tive Verbs

Parts of Speech — Everything about Nouns

Nouns

Nouns

What is a noun?

All the nam­ing words used to name or label are known as Nouns. Every­thing is rep­re­sented by a name and that name is called as a noun. Nouns can be names for ani­mals, places, peo­ple, objects, mea­sures and actions.

Exam­ples: Alan (name of a per­son), Lion (name of an ani­mal), Lon­don (name of a place), table (name s an object), kind­ness (name of a qual­ity), inches (name of mea­sure­ment) and more

Types of nouns:

Proper noun: Proper nouns are proper or own names of peo­ple, things and places and usu­ally start with cap­i­tal let­ters.
For exam­ple: Africa, George, Michael and more.

Com­mon noun: Com­mon nouns are words used for class or used to refer a thing, per­son or place. They do not start with cap­i­tal let­ters like proper nouns
For exam­ple: book, car, man, town and more

Col­lec­tive nouns: Col­lec­tive nouns are words or names rep­re­sent­ing a group of peo­ple or to a col­lec­tion of things.
For exam­ple: Team, choir, shoal, jury and more.

Ver­bal nouns: Ver­bal nouns are usu­ally formed from verbs. They come under the cat­e­gory of com­mon nouns.
For exam­ple: swim­ming (this is the name of an activ­ity but it is derived from a verb i.e. to swim.

Com­pound nouns: Com­pounds nouns are those nouns that are com­posed of two or more than two words and are usu­ally hyphened.
For exam­ple: Board of mem­bers, Manser­vant, Mother-in-law.

Abstract noun: Abstract nouns are those nam­ing words that are used to refer to some ideas, or emo­tions, the ones that can­not be sensed and have no phys­i­cal exis­tence.
For exam­ple: Jus­tice, brav­ery, faith are all exam­ples of abstract nouns.

Con­crete noun: These types of nouns are oppo­site of Abstract nouns mean­ing name of things or peo­ple that can be expe­ri­enced or sensed are Con­crete nouns. Most of the nouns are usu­ally con­crete nouns
For exam­ple: dogs, cats, buses and more.

Kinds of Nouns

Every­thing about Nouns

Count­able and uncount­able nouns:

Count­able nouns are those nouns that can be eas­ily counted and have usu­ally two forms i.e. sin­gu­lar and plural.
For exam­ple: a book, an apple.

Uncount­able nouns are those nouns that one can­not count and usu­ally are in sin­gu­lar form, mean­ing they do not have an/a or any num­ber prior to them.
For exam­ple: work, water, sand and more.

Gerund noun: A gerund noun is one which is formed by adding –ing prior to a verb which can be fol­lowed either by an adjec­tive, prepo­si­tion or in cases even by another verb.
For exam­ple: walk­ing, swim­ming and more.

Parts of speech

Before learn­ing Eng­lish we need to learn the basics of Eng­lish. The basic gram­mar of Eng­lish starts with the parts of speech. With­out know­ing parts of speech we can’t under­stand the Eng­lish gram­mar. So let us know about parts of speech.
As we know Sen­tences are divided into two parts basi­cally as sub­ject and pred­i­cate. In sim­i­lar man­ner Eng­lish words are clas­si­fied into dif­fer­ent parts of speech as fol­lows:
1. Noun
2. Pro­noun
3. Adjec­tive
4. Verb
5. Adverb
6. propo­si­tion
7. con­junc­tion
8. Inter­jec­tion
english 101 - 350x313

Noun: A noun is basi­cally used as the name of a per­son, place, ani­mal, thing etc.
Ex: Harry, Hyder­abad, Tiger, Glass etc
Pro­noun: A Pro­noun is a word used instead of noun. Here we don’t men­tion explicit noun.
Ex: He, she, they, it etc.
Adjec­tive: An Adjec­tive is a word that qual­i­fies or describes either a noun or a pro­noun.
Ex: Our team played good game.
All these pro­pos­als are good

Verb: A verb will expresses what the sub­ject of a sen­tence does or has or what is done to it.
Ex: Dr.Rao teaches Eng­lish.
He has taught the sub­ject for twenty-five years.
She has a car
Note: Under­lined words in the above sen­tences are verbs.
Adverb: Adverb is a word that mod­i­fies an adjec­tive or a verb or another adverb.
Ex: I am deeply grate­ful to you for your timely help.
This horse runs very fast.
He read the pas­sage quickly.

Prepo­si­tion: A prepo­si­tion is a word used with a noun or a pro­noun to show how the per­son or thing denoted by the noun or pro­noun stands in rela­tion to some­thing else.
Ex: Work in the col­lege begins at 10a.m.
He wrote the doc­u­ment with a pen.
The pro­fes­sor gave a lec­ture on Elec­tro­mag­net­ism.
I washed my plate after I had lunch.
Note: The words under­lined above are prepo­si­tions.
Con­junc­tion: A con­junc­tion is basi­cally a word that joins words or phrases or sen­tences.
Ex: Delhi and Hyder­abad are densely pop­u­lated cities.
She must be either the pres­i­dent or the sec­re­tary of Y.C.A.
The pro­fes­sor read the essay and was impressed by it.
He is not only intel­li­gent but also indus­tri­ous.
Note: The words under­lined above are prepo­si­tions.
Inter­jec­tion: An Inter­jec­tion word which expresses a strong or sud­den feel­ing such as sur­prise, joy, fear, sor­row etc. Impor­tant thing is Inter­jec­tion is not gram­mat­i­cally con­nected with the rest of the sen­tences. In gen­eral, exclam­a­tory mark is kept after it.
Ex: Ah!, Hur­ray!, Well!, Oh!.
Alas! She is dead.
Hur­rah! We won the match.
Note: As words are divided into dif­fer­ent parts of speech mainly depend­ing on the work they do in the sen­tences, it is merely not pos­si­ble for any­one to say to which part of a sen­tence a word belongs unless and until we see what func­tion it per­forms in the sentence.

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